Profitable Farming in Maharashtra
The agricultural industry is a primary source of income for India’s growing economy as it generates the largest amount of employment opportunities for the Indian population. According to various sources, in 2019, 42.6 percent population was employed in the agricultural industry which shows that a greater percentage of the population, relies on the agriculture sector and its successful outcomings. Agriculture was a popular practice to generate income in the Indus-valley civilization. Moreover, agriculture was a significant part of India’s economic structure for quite a long and continues to be a part of it in this day and age too.
Maharashtra is considered to be one of the most developed states in India in terms of finance and economical growth. Mumbai, being the financial capital of India, contributes to the state’s GDP. There are many sectors such as finance, industrial, and banking sectors in Maharashtra which are well established.
The agriculture sector in Maharashtra:
Maharashtra is one of the leading states in terms of the agriculture industry. Farming in Maharashtra is the backbone of the state’s economy. To add more, its economy is predominately agriculture-based. Most of the population is involved in farming and its allied activities. Maharashtra’s contribution to India’s agriculture GDP per sector is 13.2%.
Major principal crops which have grown in the State are rice, jowar, bajra, wheat, tur, mung, urad, gram, and other pulses. The State is a major producer of oilseeds. Groundnut, sunflower, and soybeans are the major oilseed crops. The important commercial crops are cotton, sugarcane, turmeric, and vegetables. The state is a large contributor to onion production in the country. It is today emerging as an important horticultural State within the country.
Different forms of soil, diverse agro-based climatic conditions, adequate technical manpower, well-developed communication facilities, rising trend in drip irrigation, greenhouse, use of cool chain facilities, and vibrant farmer organization offer huge advancements to grow different horticultural crops in the State. premium quality grapes produced in the State are now exported to other countries. Mango, particularly ‘Alphonso’, grown in Konkan, has already made a name in the international market. Maharashtra has an area of 13.66 lakh hectares under indifferent fruit crops such as mango, banana, orange, grape, cashew nut, etc.
Various forms of soils in Maharashtra for agriculture farming:
1) Coarse shallow soils (high level).
2) Moderate black soils.
3) Profound black soils.
4) Burnt sienna soils of hill slopes.
5) Coastal alluvium.
6) Yellowish-brown soil of plains (mixed origin).
7) Yellowish-brown soil.
8) Laterite and lateritic soil.
9) Costal saline.
Weather conditions in Maharashtra for agricultural farming:
Maharashtra has tropical monsoon climates and has all three seasons.
Monsoon season: Rain usually commences in the 1st week of June and July has heavy rainfall in Maharashtra. While august gets substantial rain. Rainfall differs within regions.
Winter season: In winter, the weather is pleasant with the cold dry breeze from November to February. Though, the eastern part of Maharashtra sometimes pours. Usually, the temperature varies between 12 to 34 C during winter.
Summer season: Summer in Maharashtra is sometimes humid and dry. The temperatures vary between 35 to 45 C. the summer months are March, April, and May.
Major strengths of agriculture farming in Maharashtra:
The major strengths include the large population in urban areas that is predominant in financial and industrial activity as the industrial sector helps the agriculture sector through backward and forward linkages as it provides a ready marketplace for agricultural commodities, production, and inputs like machinery, seeds, etc agriculture;
The large level of production of fruits and vegetables (onion, grapes, mangoes, oranges, pomegranates, etc) has great potential for exports;
Topography and agro-climatic conditions conductive for helping horticulture and facilitate diversifications into high-value horticulture crops;
Investment in onion storage infrastructure and agriculture export zones for grapes, grapevine, pomegranate, onions, mangoes, etc;
A large number of agro-processing units and proximity to multinational seaports;
Large production of milk, eggs, and meat. A long coastline of 720 km facilitates fishing.
Floriculture farming in Maharashtra:
Maharashtra is the highest producer of floriculture commodities with more than 4000 hectares of area under different flowers. The most conventional flowers which are grown on the soil of Maharashtra are Rose, Marigold, Tuberose, Chrysanthemum, and Jasmine. Although, Lilies, Stacie, gerberas, and carnations are harvested among non-conventional flowers. Maharashtra has appeared as a leading state for the production, consumption, and export of flowers in the country. The vital features of floriculture development in Maharashtra are setting up an enormous number of export-related units with foreign collaborations and investment. This state is offering state-of-the-art infrastructure for the floriculture industry to develop. Likewise, the peaceful and non-hazardous environment is a successful operation of these units. Floriculture farming in Maharashtra is very popular.
Crucial evaluations of agriculture farming in Maharashtra state:
Insistence on development of horticulture in company with Agriculture.
The first state to develop Dry Land Farming Technology.
Primary developers in the cooperative networks such as dairies, sugar factories, and water user beneficiaries.
Establishment of four state agricultural universities.
Existence of effective and research-based farmers’ organizations.
Adapted concept of corporate and contract farming in order to promote.
Acknowledgment and acceptance of the latest advanced technology by grape farmers like, , Agmark Eurepgap, residue, Bar-coding monitoring system, etc.
An area of 13.66 lakh hectares under horticulture and 4 lakh hectares under vegetables.
The highest number of poly-houses (1271) for the cultivation of flowers is maintained by small farmers.
The largest producer of seedless Grapes, Mandarin oranges, Banana, Onion, and Tomatoes of the total production in India. Alphonso mangoes account aimed at 90% of India’s export Mangoes.
Leading in the sugar industry sector with 150 efficient cooperative sugar mills and 200 sanctioned sugar factories.
Maharashtra stands first within the country in terms of drip irrigation as more than 60% of the area is under drip irrigation. It has roughly 40 percent turnover of the seed industry within the country.
Food processing industries in Maharashtra:
Food processing industries in Maharashtra have quite common processing. The essential food processing industries in the state are within the sectors of sugar, poultry, milk, flour mill, rice mill, edible oil, Vanaspati, fruit and vegetable units, milk processing units, etc. There is the presence of big opportunities for updating food processing units etc. in similar ways, there is a presence of huge potential for development and setting processing units for Tomatoes, Cabbage, Onion, Cauliflower, and Okra.
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