5 Important Rabi Crops & their Farming
May 19, 2023
5 Important Rabi Crops-Mustard, cumin, barley, sesame, and peas!
Apart from the wheat and chickpea crops, there are a number of Rabi crops that are essential for everyday use, especially in oils and seasoning as well as some grains and vegetables. Winter crops and their farming is an amazing phenomenon with all the fresh green vegetables and fruits from leafy spinach to fresh red strawberries. Let’s also talk about some important crops for seasoning, oils and grains. We’ll talk about the farming of mustard, cumin, barley, sesame and peas.
Common name: Mustard
Botanical Name: Brassica nigra
Also known as canola or grapeseed, mustard has different names in different countries. In India, mustard or ‘raya’ is used every day in the meals and is essential to the seasoning. The mustard crop can be brown or yellow. In eastern regions, mustard oil is also used as the primary oil for cooking, given its many health benefits. The mustard seed is extremely tiny (~1mm) and is harvested just like wheat.
The sowing temperature should be somewhere between 20°C – 22°C and the harvesting temperature should be somewhere between 28°C – 30°C while the rainfall needed is 25-40 cm. Mustard grows on all types of soil but loamy is the best and the crop usually matures in 90 days. In a mustard feed, the bees, as well as the winds, are the 2 main sources of pollination. Mustard crops can grow up to 3-5 feet tall and spread a full field of beautiful yellow. Mustard is an important rabi crop among others rabi crops.
Common name: Cumin
Botanical Name: Cuminum cyminum
Across the globe, India has the highest production of cumin seeds, and within it also, areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat produce the most of this crop. This is a self-pollinated crop that grows in a cool and dry climate and also grows best in loamy soil with a pH of 7-7.5. One of the most important elements found in cumin is the cumin aldehyde, which makes this a very beneficial crop for health-related reasons.
This seasoning crop is used in both its seed and powder format extensively in Indian cuisine as well as for medicinal purposes. RZ 19, RZ 209 and GC 1 are some of the most popular commercial cumin rabi crops. Weeding is a major concern for cumin farming and therefore needs to be done in the first and second months after sowing. After the production, cumin seeds are sun-dried, cleaned, sorted, and graded so they can be made ready for consumption.
Common name: Barley
Botanical Name: Hordeum vulgare
Barley is among one of the oldest rabi crops of the grass, cereal and grain family. In India, a number of ingredients are made out of the barley crop. Like sattu, malt, pearl barley, etc. For its early growth, barley needs a cool and dry weather whereas it needs a warm weather during maturity. It is drought-resistant as well as a salt-tolerant crop. Barley farming is best done in deep-loamy and saline-alkaline soil. Some of the most commercially popular varieties of barley are huskless, RD 2668 and RD 2052 among many others. In earlier days, barley was one of the most used crop for livestock feeding and also for industrial consumption.
In India, it is largely grown in Rajasthan, MP and UP. The sowing temperature should be somewhere between 12°C – 16°C and the harvesting temperature should be somewhere between 30°C – 32°C. Barley is grown in our country in many combinations like with bajra, maize, sorghum, rice, etc.
Common name: Sesame
Botanical Name: Sesamum indicum
Sesame seeds are flowering plants that are in high demand everywhere in the world because of the extremely high level of oil content when compared to other oil seeds. It has been given many popular names like the ‘queen of oil-seeds’ and the ‘Ghee of the poor man’. Sesame is a very lightweight seed that also has a very high protein content. India is the largest producer of sesame seeds, although the origin is from Africa.
These crops are grown in a dry weather and require minimum watering, again a very drought tolerant crop. The optimum temperature should be somewhere between 23°C – 32°C and the rainfall needed is 25-30 cm. It grows best in sandy-loamy soil with a pH level between 6-8. Growing in both easter and western regions in our country, sesame is grown most in West Bengal, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh among many regions.
The weeding needs to be critically in check during the first month of the sowing. Sesame seeds grow in capsules or pods and once ready, the crops are stocked and stored in the sun for around a week before threshing so they are fully ready.
Common name: Pea
Botanical Name: Pisum sativum
A very popular vegetable crop, peas are grown in pods and can be of two types – the garden pea and the field pea. China and India are the largest producers of this vegetable and in India, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh are among the highest producers of this crop. The flowers of a pea plant are actually white in colour and the actual vegetable is green. The most suitable temperature for growing pea is 22°C for germination and 15°C -20°C for growth. Peas also need a sandy-loam soil to grow with the ideal pH being 6-7.5. Peas are used in a number of dishes from curries to soups and sold fresh, frozen and canned.
Most of these are rabi crops and are largely spices, seasoning or oil-giving crops. A lot of these rabi crops require minimum watering, but be sure to use the correct manure and fertilizers to prevent your yield from pests and other common diseases in rabi crops. You can contact the experts at Utkarsh to know more about the same.
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Pinaki Kotecha Poojara
Affiliate Writer with Monkey Ads